Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups of similar average body weight [HFD-fed group and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (HMCA)-fed group to HFD] for 12 weeks in a factorial design. Cecums were collected at after treatments. Cecal DNA was extracted from frozen samples using the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Feces by following the manufacturer's instructions. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified targeting the hypervariable regions V4 using 515F/806R primers. The amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq with MiSeq Reagent 222 kit V3. The libraries were prepared following the Illumina protocol for 8pM: 'Preparing Libraries for Sequencing on the MiSeq'.